Comparative Pathology: Mammary Gland Biopsy

The laboratory mouse has long been the model for atypical hyperplasia. This is an image from the 1911 report by Haaland.  He recognized, as did Apolant, that these hyperplastic nodules in the mouse mammary gland were connected to tumorigenesis. The problem has been to identify which atypical hyperplasias are precancer and which are not. Research throughout the ensuing 100 years has failed to provide predictive biomarkers. All we know in the mouse and human is that some lesions progress and others do not. Why?


Click to enlarge




Click here to view the human pathology.



Miltenburg DM, Speights VO Jr. Benign breast disease. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2008 Jun;35(2):285-300, ix. Review. PubMed PMID: 18486842.

Santen RJ, Mansel R. Benign breast disorders. N Engl J Med. 2005 Jul 21;353(3):275-85. Review. PubMed PMID: 16034013.

Valea FA, Datz VL “Breast diseases: diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant disease”  In: Katz VL, Lentz GM Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Eds. Comprehensive Gynecology 5th Ed Philadelphia, Pa Mosby Elsevier, 2007, Chapt 15.



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