Comparative Pathology: Prostate Adenocarcinoma, May 14, 2011

Mouse Models of human prostate carcinoma have focused on the PI5k-Pten-mTor axis. Some of these models produce remarkable mimics of human prostatic adenocarcinoma. For example, can you tell us which is Human Adenocarcinoma of the prostate (Left or Right)?

Prostate adenocarcinomaProstate adenocarcinoma

Click here to see the whole slide image for the human.

Click here to see the whole slide image for the mouse.

The human adenocarcinoma is:

  1. Left
  2. Right
  3. All of the above
  4. None of the above

Scroll below for answer.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Answer: 1

Comment: The prostate on the left is from human (click here to see WSI). The prostate on the right is from a Tg(probasin:cMyc) male (click here to see WSI).

Human prostate adenocarcinomas are associated with a wide variety of genetic mutations which are found in all stages, from PIN to metastatic disease.  For example, in human prostate cancer:  Nkx-3.1 (transcription factor) is lost in about 80% of cases (8p12-21 in early disease and 8p22 in advanced); PTEN (cell proliferation suppressor and an apoptosis stimulator) has one allele lost in about 30% of primary lesions and mutations are seen in about 60% of metastases; in castrate resistant adenocarcinomas, c-myc (a transcription factor) is over-expressed in about 70% of cases, whereas p53 (an apoptosis regulator) mutations are found in about 50% of cases.  Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have also been identified in human prostate cancers, as have associations with other genes.  A recent study of four particular genes has proposed an association with recurrence and the likelihood of metastasis.  These genes are cyclin D1 (enhances proliferation), SPP1 (a promoter of metastasis), PTEN and SMAD4 (thought to be a suppressor of prostate tumor progression).  Mouse models of these molecular defects are available.

 

References:

Shen MM, Abate-Shen C Molecular genetics of prostate cancer: new prospects for old challenges. Genes Dev. 2010 Sep 15;24(18):1967-2000. Review. PMID:20844012

 

 

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